Odia calendar is primarily used by the people of Odisha state of India. It is a Hindu calendar and is different from the usual English calendar. In Odia language it is also called ‘Panji’ or ‘Odia Panjika’. People of Odisha follow the Odia calendar to find the dates of various festivals, they also refer it to find the auspicious dates which are suitable for conducting marriage ceremony, thread ceremony and other important celebrations.
The Odia calendar consists of twelve months, six seasons and seven days a week like many other calendars. The names of the twelve months in Odia language are Baisakha, Jyesṭha, Asaḍha, Srabaṇa, Bhadraba, Aswina, Kartika, Margasira, Pausa, Magha, Phalguna and Chaitra. The names of the six seasons in Odia language are Grisma, Barsa, Sarata, Hemanta, Sita and Basanta. Each Odia season covers two months. The names of the seven days in Odia language are Rabi, Soma, Mangala, Budha, Guru, Sukra and Sani. Following table shows the mapping of Odia months with English months and Odia seasons with English seasons.
As per Odia calendar, the day begins and ends at sunrise. In every Odia month, there are two Pakhya (fortnight) – Shukla Pakhya (Bright fortnight) and Krushna Pakhya (Dark fortnight). Shukla Pakhya starts on the day of the new moon, which is called Amavasya, and ends before the full Moon. Krushna Pakhya starts on the day of the full moon, which is called Purnima, and ends before the new moon.
Baisakha is the first month of the Odia calendar. 1st January is not celebrated as the new year day but Pana Sankranti is the new year day according to the Odia calendar, so Odia new year festival is also known as Pana Sankranti or Maha Bishuba Sankranti. The Odia new year falls in Mid-April.
There are many variants of Odia calendar is followed in Odisha region but the most common and popular Odia calendar is the Kohinoor Odia calendar. The below Kohinoor Odia calendar is not a complete Odia Panjika but a handy reference for all the important festival dates for the year.